# News aggregator

### use of -Werror

### Twan van Laarhoven: Dependent equality with the interval

Here is a way to represent heterogeneous or dependent equalities, based on an interval type. In Homotopy Type Theory the interval is usually presented as a Higher Inductive Type with two constructors and a path between them. Here I will just give the two constructors, the path is implicit

data I : Set where i₁ : I i₂ : I -- there is usually a path, i-edge : i₁ ≡ i₂The eliminator is

i-elim : ∀ {a} {A : I → Set a} → (x₁ : A i₁) → (x₂ : A i₂) → (Eq A x₁ x₂) → (i : I) → A i i-elim x₁ x₂ eq i₁ = x₁ i-elim x₁ x₂ eq i₂ = x₂Here the type Eq is the dependent equality, which has type

Eq : ∀ {a} (A : I → Set a) → (x₁ : A i₁) → (x₂ : A i₂) → Set aso we take a type parametrized by an interval, and two values of that type at the two endpoints of this interval. We can also define "heterogeneous reflexivity", a generalization of the usual refl function:

refl : ∀ {a} {A : I → Set a} → (x : (i : I) → A i) → Eq A (x i₁) (x i₂)This function can be used to extract the third part of i-elim, with the reduction

refl (i-elim x₁ x₂ eq) = eqI believe this can be used as the basis for an observational type theory, where Eq A and refl x reduce. The above is the first case for refl, the rest is "just" tedious structural recursion such as

Eq (\i → A i × B i) x y = Eq A (proj₁ x) (proj₁ y) × Eq B (proj₂ x) (proj₂ y) refl (\i → x i , y i) = refl x , refl yand

Eq (\i → A i → B i) f g = {x : A i₁} → {y : A i₂} → Eq A x y → Eq B (f x) (g y) refl (\i → \(x : A i) → f i x) = \{x} {y} xy → refl (\i → f i (i-elim x y xy i))or we can actually use the dependent equality and be more general

Eq (\i → Σ (x₁ : A i) (B i x₁)) x y = Σ (x₁y₁ : Eq A (proj₁ x) (proj₁ y)) (Eq (\i → B i (i-elim (proj₁ x) (proj₁ y) x₁y₁ i)) (proj₂ x) (proj₂ y)) Eq (\i → (x : A i) → B i) f g = {x : A i₁} → {y : A i₂} → (xy : Eq A x y) → Eq (\i → B i (i-elim x y xy i)) (f x) (g y)Of course there is a lot more to it, but that is not the subject of this post.

As a final remark: if you are not too touchy about typing, then refl could even be implemented with the path i-edge between i₁ and i₂

i-edge : Eq (\_ → I) i₁ i₂ i-elim x₁ x₂ eq i-edge = eq refl foo = foo i-edgeBut I'd rather not do that.

### [learn] Help explaining a strange use of foldr

How does this function work?

foo :: (a -> b -> a) -> a -> [b] -> a foo f a bs = foldr (\b g x -> g (f x b)) id bs aFrom what I understand, foldr normally takes 3 parameters, and the first parameter is normally a binary function. In the function foo, foldr seems to have 4 parameters instead of 3, and the first parameter seems to be a ternary function.

Suppose I guessed from here that foo is an implementation of foldl. How would I prove it?

submitted by ronguida[link] [5 comments]

### hplayground: write #haskell code for the browser console-like. get reactive, window and spreadsheet effects for free.

### Chris Smith: CodeWorld Rises Again!

About three years ago, I started work on an idea about technology-based math education. The idea was to get middle school students to work passionately on using mathematics to create things, by:

- Doing their own original, creative work, instead of following instructions or reaching set answers.
- Getting instant feedback 24 hours a day, so they can tinker and learn in a self-directed way.
- Building confidence by working on their own ideas, inspiring pride and excitement.
- Experiencing how concepts from geometry, algebra, and physics can be springboards for creativity.
- Becoming creators, rather than just consumers, of technology.

That’s a lofty set of goals, but it was very successful. In the 2011-2012 school year, I taught a small class of six students, two to three hours per week. We had an awesome time. They built their own computer games throughout the year. We struggled together, worked our way through, and finished the school year with an awesome expo where the students showed off their work to local technology professionals and participated in a question-and-answer panel about their experiences. It was fascinating listening to this, because a few patterns arose:

- Students didn’t really think of what they were doing as math. This remained true, even when the skills they learned involved describing the behavior of systems using equations, functions, and variables; describing complex shapes in terms of geometry, the coordinate plane, and rotations, translations, and scaling; coming to grips with the meaning of probability and randomness; etc.
- The students who entered the year being “good at technology” weren’t necessarily the most likely to succeed. Talking to these students broke all of the stereotypical molds about computers and technology! Students took to the activity and wildly succeeded were very often girls, and had previously thought they were more the art-and-music type.

At the end of that year, I had plans to teach this program in multiple schools the following school year. Unfortunately, things then got a little sidetracked. I started a new job at Google over the summer, moved to California, and dropped the program. The web site that students had used to build their projects fell into disrepair, and stopped working. I stopped doing anything about it.

Over the last week and a half, though, that’s changed! CodeWorld is back!

Getting StartedThe CodeWorld web site is (as always) at http://www.codeworld.info.

Any web browser will do, but you really need to use the latest version of whatever browser you choose. If you’ve been putting off upgrading Internet Explorer, it’s long past time!

You’ll also want a Google account. You can log in using your Google account, and save your programs to Google Drive. Because your programs are saved to the cloud, you can use the web site from any computer you like, even computer labs in a school, and your programs will follow where ever you go.

Using the web site is simple. Type your program on the left. Click Run to see it work on the right. You can sign in to open your existing projects and save your projects. You can also get links to share your projects with others. There are sample projects along the bottom of the screen, including Yo Grandma!, a game written by Sophia, one of my students from the original class.

Unfortunately, instructions on how to write the programs are still mostly missing. If you already know the language, a link to the generated documentation might help. Otherwise, hold on! Once the programming environment is stable, I plan to put together a comprehensive progression of exercises, tutorials, and examples.

Behind the ScenesUnder the hood, I mostly recreated this from scratch, throwing away most of the original project from a few years ago. This new version of the environment has a lot of advantages: it runs your programs on your own computer, so your program runs a lot faster. It’s less restrictive. And I completely customized the language to make a lot of things simpler and easier to understand.

Changes:

- The programming language for CodeWorld is called Haskell. Haskell is an awesomely mathematical language, but parts of it are also notoriously complex. The new incarnation of CodeWorld still uses Haskell, but goes a lot further to hide the rough edges. In particular, you’ll rarely see any classes, and there’s an obvious type for most things (e.g., all text has the type Text, and all numbers have the type Number.)
- Previously, CodeWorld was based on a library called Gloss for the Haskell programming language. Gloss is great, and I saved as many ideas from it as I could. But CodeWorld is now its own library. This let me clean up some terminology, align the meaning of programs more closely with the goals of algebraic thinking and math concepts, and work with the simplified version of the language.
- The biggest change to how the web site works is that your programs now run on your own computer, instead of on the web server. This is using an awesome project called GHCJS, which converts the Haskell program into JavaScript, which is understood by web browsers.

I’ll try to keep posting here as I have learning material ready to use with this tool. Stay tuned!

### Chris Smith: Big changes coming to CodeWorld

I’m continuing work on CodeWorld, my educational programming environment based on geometry and algebra. There are big changes coming! If you’re interested in following the project, please join the new codeworld-discuss mailing list, where I’ll send more regular announcements about significant changes, as well as try to answer questions, and discuss future directions.

Here are some things I intend to change in the near future. A more complete list is on the project issue tracker, but this is a summary with more details and reasoning about some of the changes.

Aligning With Math EducationAn important goal of this project is to align with a standards-based U.S. middle school math education, as much as possible. To be clear, I still refuse to add complexity or turn the project into a patchwork of specific lessons that promote a specific narrow path of learning. First and foremost, this should be an environment for tinkering and encountering ideas in self-motivated way. But given alternative designs that could each be valid on their own, I’ll choose the one that pushes students toward the math standards.

It’s sometimes a tough line to draw. But I’ve become convinced that there are a few places where I can do better. Two of those are going to be major breaking changes, coming soon.

1. Death to CurryingHaskell’s convention of currying functions is the wrong default for CodeWorld. Practically all of mathematics, especially at introductory level, is carried out with the notation *f*(*x*,*y*) = … . The interpretation is that a function of two parameters is a function whose domain is a product – a set of ordered pairs. The Haskell language makes a different choice. Applying a function to two parameters is more like *f*(*x*)(*y*) (the parentheses are optional in Haskell itself), and the interpretation is that *f*(*x*) denotes a partially applied *function* that’s still waiting for its second parameter.

If the goal were to teach about higher-order functions, there would be lots of great arguments for the latter. If the goal were convenience, you could argue for the latter pretty persuasively, as well. I think Haskell’s use of currying is great. But when the goal is to let students encounter and tinker with things they will see in school math, the right choice is to adopt the convention of mathematics.

Luckily, the assumption of curried multi-parameter functions isn’t baked into Haskell too deeply. By changing the standard library, it’s quite possible to write *f*(*x*,*y*) just as well. The parentheses on *f*(*x*) become optional, but this is actually true of mathematics in general (for example, operators in linear algebra are often written without parentheses, as are trig functions). I will adopt the convention of using parentheses around even single function parameters.

The only big source of awkwardness comes with binary operators. So long as we choose not to teach the notations `foo` (for turning a function into an operator) or (+) (for turning an operator into a function), this doesn’t come up much. Notably, sections still work fine, since they take only one argument.

A couple convenient side effects of this choice are nice, too:

- Students who routinely write parentheses around function arguments less often find themselves forced to surround negative numbers in parentheses for weird parsing reasons. As trivial as it might seem, this was a very real and significant learning obstacle the last time I taught the class, and I’ll be happy to see it go.
- Getting expression structure wrong sometimes gives much better error messages this way. It’s harder to accidentally mix up precedence between an operator and function application; and passing too few arguments to a function gives a clear error rather than inferring a function type and breaking in an obscure way elsewhere.

The second big change is to resize the canvas from 500×500 to 20×20.

The justification for a 500×500 canvas was generally about confusing pixels – little dots on the screen – with the general idea of a coordinate system. It’s convenient to blur the distinction at first, but it has in the past become a barrier to understanding the full nature of the coordinate plane with real (or even rational) coordinates. Many students were confused when later faced with fractional coordinates. At the same time, developing a full understanding of the rational number system is a big topic in 6th, 7th, and 8th grade mathematics, so it would be great to ask students to do more tinkering with these numbers.

By replacing this with a 20×20 grid (x and y coordinates ranging from -10 to 10), several goals are accomplished:

- Students early in the class are working with numbers in a range they can comprehend better.
- Students routinely work in fractions or decimals to fine tune their projects.
- The abstract coordinate plane, including fractional coordinates, becomes more familiar.

This is a big win overall.

Changes to UsabilityOn the less controversial side, I’m planning a number of changes to make the site more usable:

- Pervasive auto-complete, based on a pre-populated list of the standard library symbols as well as parsing the student code for declared names.
- More complete documentation, tutorials, and better examples. I admit that the current site is grossly lacking in documentation. I don’t envy anyone who tries to figure it out on their own!
- Better tools for playing around with results. At the very least, students will be given the chance to scroll, pan, and see coordinates of points in pictures, animations, and simulations.

I also have my wish list for things I’d love to see possible, but am not quite ready to build yet. This includes:

- Social features: sharing projects with friends, commenting on or expressing support for other projects.
- Collaborative projects with shared editing or exporting libraries for others to use.
- Better debugging tools, such as easy controls to move forward and back in time, fast-forward, pause, etc. for animations, simulations, and even games.
- Possibly grading features for teachers to grade projects and provide a scoring rubric and comments.

What else would you like to see? Let me know in the comments here, on codeworld-discuss, or by filing a feature request in the issue tracker.

### Haskell Beginner Stuck on Command-Line IO

I am web developer who works primarily in Python and Javascript, and while often the discussion in this subreddit is over my head, I have found the small bits of Haskell that I have learned to be enlightening such that I have recently decided to start building stuff where I can in Haskell in order to advance my understanding of the language.

Anyway, apologies if this does not belong here, but I'm stuck on a problem and I can't seem to figure it out and it finally occurred to me to ask you guys for help.

Here's a gist of a module I built yesterday in order to pull and count IP addresses from Django Tracebacks.

I can use it on the REPL (GHCi) and get results that I expect in the following way:

unlines . map flatten . countUnique . ipOnly . spammers <$> readFile "tracebacks.txt"However, I can't seem to figure out how to organize the main block. It compiles but does not seem to do anything with input or output (I was hoping to name an infile and outfile on the command-line). Someone here will probably see right away what I'm doing wrong.

In addition, I would be happy to take any other suggestions or critiques you might have of this small script. I crammed a lot of stuff in there in order to experiment with the language a bit, but I'm sure there are mistakes or poor assumptions I have made. In fact, I noticed a discussion today talking about using Data.Text instead of String (which I am relying on pretty heavily here), so I was thinking of rewriting this using Data.Text.

Thanks for any suggestions you might have.

*EDIT*: I updated the gist with a working main, but I realize now I should probably have kept it broken for people who come to this thread late. The first version can be seen in the revision history: https://gist.github.com/pellagic-puffbomb/324cf7f50f4480e8a8d1/revisions

[link] [18 comments]

### Are transformers the answer to this problem?

I'm writing a small program (an extension of a Pokemon game that got posted here a while ago) where I'm trying to not use IO as much as possible. The program relies on randomness (picking a random Pokemon and move) and on writing (say things like "Pokemon X attacked you for Y damage!").

Again, I'm trying NOT to use IO, so instead I'm using Rand (Control.Monad.Random) and Writer. Now, I have a couple of functions that return Rand g a (where a can be a pokemon name or move), but I would like to "log" the name and move after they come in.

Here's a simplified version of what I'm trying to do:

battle :: _ battle = do move <- getRandomMove -- returns an Rand g Move tell ["Pokemon attacked you with " ++ name move] damage <- calculateDamage -- returns an Rand g Damage tell ["And did " ++ damage] battleOf course, this doesn't work (I'm mixing my Rands and Writers). I thought "maybe this is what Transformers are for?"). I tried using WriterT and RandT in a combination of ways, but I always go stuck, which makes me think that's not right either.

So my question are:

- Are transformers the answer to my problem?
- If so, how do you use them? (I'm failing to understands them from the tutorials I've found online)
- If not, how could I solve this problem?

Edit: Formatting Edit2: battle is recursive

submitted by Die-Nacht[link] [13 comments]

### Algorithm for labeling same-colored regions in a 2Darray?

### PhD opportunities at the University of Birmingham

We have a number of openings for PhD study at the University of Birmingham, and we also have an *imminent funding deadline*, so please contact me (or any of us in the theory group at Birmingham) immediately if you're interested.

I personally am looking for students interested in designing the next generation of functional languages. You can find a fuller announcement here.

submitted by neelk[link] [3 comments]